Steganography

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Steganographic storage of encrypted files in images.

What I find truly fascinating is that there is no way to tell if an image contains steganographically hidden encrypted data. Even if you know every line of the source code of the program that you suspect may have been used to hide the data, you still have nothing to help you prove anything.
If the least significant bits in the RGB-values contains encrypted data they should appear to be random. But the least significant bits in an ordinary image on the other hand, could be expected to be less random and show a bit more regional uniformity.

Store in pixel
But randomness in the least significant bits does not constitute proof that there are encrypted data hidden. The randomness of the RGB-values could originate from natural minute color shade variations in the surface of the physical object being photographed or be the result of an image editor filter.

I’ve been working on an encryption program in C# for a couple of days. It encrypts files and hides the encrypted data steganographically inside images.

The portrait above actually does contain data that can be extracted and be visually interpreted in an unexpected way. Hidden in the above images is another image. The image you see below:

img02

I think that maybe it’s wrong to say that the initial image contains hidden data. There are no hidden data. All data in the initial image is visually represented on the screen. The question is how you interpret the data.

To make things more interesting I can reveal that the above bluish image also contains something that you might not expect.

Encoded in the pixels is a text file with the 81 verses of the ancient Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu.

1
The Tao that can be trodden is not the enduring and
unchanging Tao. The name that can be named is not the enduring and
unchanging name.

(Conceived of as) having no name, it is the Originator of heaven
and earth; (conceived of as) having a name, it is the Mother of all
things.

Always without desire we must be found,
If its deep mystery we would sound;
But if desire always within us be,
Its outer fringe is all that we shall see.

Under these two aspects, it is really the same; but as development
takes place, it receives the different names. Together we call them
the Mystery. Where the Mystery is the deepest is the gate of all that
is subtle and wonderful.

Above you see only the first verse. The bluish image contains all 81 verses!

 

 

 

 

Annonser

Game of Life with B345/S45 rules

A lot of people are familiar with British mathematician John Horton Conway’s ”Game of Life” – an algorithm to simulate cellular growth and decay, first published in Scientific American in 1970.

The concept is simple. Imagine an infinite grid of empty squares. Each of these squares can either be empty or occupied by a ”cell”. The are only two rules. One rule for empty squares (the birth rule) and one rule for squares occupied by a cell (the survival rule).

Birth: If an empty square has exactly three neighboring cells a new cell is born in that square.
Survival: An existing cell will only survive if it has either two or three neighbors.

These two rules implies a time axis along which the grid will project forward in discrete phases.

But why do we have these specific rules? Why is exactly three neighbors required to give birth to a new cell?

Conway’s classical rules are sometimes abbreviated to the code B3/S23.

The reason for these particular rules to have become so popular isn’t that strange. Anyone who has experimented with a simulation engine using these rules knows that they often create very complex and interesting situations.

But this being a fact doesn’t exclude the possibility of other rules also having the potential of creating complex and interesting scenarios.

Conway himself and others have explored a lot of other possible rules for Birth and Survival.

I played around two days ago with my own javascript-powered game of life engine where I can chose any set of rules for birth and survival. I wanted to explore an idea I had to use the game of life cellular automaton concept to create a cryptographic hashing algorithm. So, by a mere coincidence, I tried the B345/S45 rules and was fascinated by the way that an initial small colony of cells transformed during hundreds of phases only to later die out. This was almost always the fate that awaited small colonies occupying an initial eight times eight square. I tried out new random shaped colonies, one after another and very seldom a shape would pop up that wouldn’t die out but instead grow and grow and never stop growing. How come, I wondered?

I dealt with this question systematically and found out that there are only 36 symmetrical shapes out of a total of 37888 that will grow indefinitely. All the other symmetrical 8×8-shapes will eventually be either totally annihilated or get stuck in small for ever repeating loops of shapes (so called pulsars).

Here is the total set of miracle seeds – the smallest possible symmetrical shapes that I found that will grow forever. All the tens of thousands of others are destined to perish or stagnate.

smallest.possible.symmetrical

I have shown that there exist no smaller symmetrical shapes, for example 7×7-shapes or 6×6-shapes, that will grow indefinitely.

Add or remove a single pixel anywhere and they will die – that’s how sensitive they are (try it out for yourself).

So these are the symmetrical ones. What about the asymmetrical ones?

I don’t know, but I guess that you can’t find an asymmetrical shape smaller that 8×8 that will grow indefinitely.

It could be tested systematically but the number of all shapes that occupy a maximum space of 8 times 8 squares are much larger than just the symmetrical ones.

Click on this link or on the picture above to go to my B345/S45 simulation engine.

Update: July 28 2015

Amazing news. After seventeen hours of automatic testing of random shaped populations eight different asymmetric 8×7 indefinite growers presented themselves!

8x7 grower 8x7 grower 2 8x7 grower 3 8x7 grower 4 8x7 grower 5 8x7 grower 6 8x7 grower 7 8x7 grower 8

I  also found three shapes that lasted a long time but in the end didn’t quite make it.

8x7 lasted 539 8x7 lasted 542 8x7 lasted 716

They lasted 539, 542 and 716 (!) rounds respectively.

Encryption

cyberpunk desk.1920x1280

That’s the entry screen to my encryption program i developed some time ago. Every time you start it, it displays a new screen with thousands of random numbers. In order to get in you need to enter a code based on what you see on the screen, but you have to know exactly what to look for. This is a good example of a keylogger safe procedure. It doesn’t matter if some spy program registers your keystrokes. The same keystrokes will probably never be used again.

If you could study the source code of the program, maybe you could unveil the secret of the whole procedure. But to make the challenge a bit more interesting, the source code of the program has been encrypted by the program itself.

Reducing image display size by changing width and height parameters in the HTML code

As most people know that is almost always a really stupid way of reducing the display size of an image. The recommended way is of course downscaling the image using an image editor program, thus creating a completely new file containing less data.

But can there ever be a point in reducing image display size using the HTML width- and height-parameters?

The answer is yes.

The main use for downscaling images by html-parameters would be on a web page where users are expected to zoom in. The nice thing with images downscaled like this, is that they wont become blurry when the users zoom in (like normal images will). In most web browsers you can zoom in pressing the keys Ctrl+Plus.

WordPress doesn’t allow me to display images downscaled like that but you check out such an image I published in another blog.

http://heterological.blogspot.se/2014/01/deep-thought.html

You see the point?

Assamwise Gamgee and Snowdo Baggins

Assamwise.Gamgee.and.Snowdo.Baggins.1300
Maybe the two most important people during 2013

Mr Snowdo Baggins is of course the ringbearer. The ring is a keyring. The key is an encryption key to an encrypted hard drive with information oh so coveted by the burning Eye of Barad Dûr.

So why is Assamwise Gamgee – mr Snowdos loyal helper – important?

Let me quote the science fiction author Bruce Sterling:

It’s incredible to me that, among the eight zillion civil society groups on the planet that hate and fear spooks and police spies, not one of them could offer Snowden one shred of practical help, except for Wikileaks. This valiant service came from Julian Assange, a dude who can’t even pack his own suitcase without having a fit.

From the article The Equadorian Library by Bruce Sterling

The last invention that man need ever make

Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the
intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one
of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better
machines; there would then unquestionably be an “intelligence explosion”, and the
intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is
the last invention that man need ever make. (I. J. Good – 1965)

As quoted by David J Chalmers in his paper The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis.

Cypherpunk

cypherpunk

The cypherpunk concept and movement is really interesting. I created the above graphics today.

Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. … We cannot expect governments, corporations, or other large, faceless organizations to grant us privacy … We must defend our own privacy if we expect to have any. … Cypherpunks write code. We know that someone has to write software to defend privacy, and … we’re going to write it… (A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto  – Eric Hughes, 1993)

Some noteworthy cypherpunks…

Cohen.Assange

Applebaum.Nakamoto